Based on the information that is given by the Department of Mining and Energy of the West Nusa Tenggara Province, height of mount Rinjani once reached approx; 5,000 m above sea level. also, the recent west part of mount Rinjani, at the pre quarter era (1,8 million years ago), was only sediment. At later on the Pleistocene era (1.8 million ago) there was volcanic activity as an effect of a tectonic volcanic action, that seeped through the surface in the form of explosive activity or melted lava. Mt. Rinjani climbing is one of main tourist attraction. Mount Rinjani is the second Highest mountain in Indonesia.
Rinjani national park lies within the major transition zone (Wallace) where the flora and fauna of south East Asia makes a dramatic transition into that which is typical of Australia. The park has a rich variety of plants and animals, although they can be hard to spot due to the terrain and rain forest cover.
Sometimes seen early in the morning is the morning is the rare black Ebony leaf monkey, known locally as lutung. The long tailed gray macaque of kera is common in Lombok and order males are seen on the crater rim. Rusa deer are forest dwellers and are occasionally seen a long the Rinjani trek train. The smaller barking deer or kijang has an alarm call with a distinct dog – like bark. Look for the disturbed ground where the wild pig or babi hutan has been foraging. Also found in the forest is the leopard cat or bodok alas, palm civet or ujat and porcupine or landak.
A variety of colorful birds live in the forest of the park. Perhaps the best know icon of the park is the crested cockatoo that is not found any further west of Lombok. Many of the forest dwelling animals, insects, birds, civets, and monkeys owe their survival to the wild fig tree or beringin as a provider of food and shelter.
The pine-like casuarinas species, Cemara, are a feature of the grassy higher slopes. Orchids or anggrek are also a feature of the grassland areas, as is edelweiss or bunga abadi growing above the tree line, it is a beautiful icon of the park and one of the park and one of our best-know sub-alvine plants.
Park Potential. Mount Rinjani area is a part of tropical rain forest that lies in West Nusa Tenggara. it consist of various types of ecosystems and a complete vegetation starting from
lowland tropical forest (semi evergreen) to mountainous tropical rain forest (1,500 – 2,000 masl) consisting of prime forest, casurina forest and sub-alphine vegetation (>2,00masl).At height of 1,000masl are many kinds of trees and bushes. like banyan (ficus Benyamina), stinging nette (laportea stimulan), guava (sygium sp), wild nutmeg (Myritica fatna), Buni hutan (Antdesma so), Neem (Azadiracta indica), bajur ( Pterospermium hptophilla), terep (artocarplus elastica), harending (Melasotama sp) and Pandanus (pandanus tectorius) tree.At height of 1,00masl – 2,00maslthis where many types of flora can be seen such as the Orchid (Vanda,Sp), Meniran (Calicarpa Sp), jakut wood (Syzigium sp), sentul (aglaia sp), deduren (aglaia argentia), Pandanus (psandanus tectorius), birds-nest fern (asplenium nidus), glagah (saccharum spontaius), Coarse grass (Imperata cylenca), paku-pakuan (Cyclocorus sp), edeweiss (Anaphalis Visida), jenggot Algae (Unsea sp) and bigg rattan (daemonorops sp)you also can find many kinds of mammals that live in Mount Rinjani, the main kind are : Wild pig (Sus scrofa), grey monkey (Macaca fascicularis), Black leaf monkey (Trcypphitecus auratus cristatus), Ganggarangan kecil (Vivvericula indica), Javan Pangolin ( Manis javanica), rinjani Palm civets (Paradoxuurus hermaproditus rindjanicus), Leleko Congkok (felis bengelensis javanensis) rusa Deers (cervus timorensis floresiensis), and Porcupines (Hystrix javanica). also a variety of birds, like the sulphur crested cockatoo (cacatua sulphures parvula), Koakiau (philemon buceroides negelcus), perkici red shest (Trichoglosus haematodus), honeyeater (Lichmera lomokia), Black-head thrush (Zootera interpress).